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1.4.8 Visual Presentation [Level AAA]

Description

Visual Presentation:

1.4.8 For the visual presentation of blocks of text, a mechanism is available to achieve the following: (Level AAA)Understanding Success Criterion 1.4.8

  1. Foreground and background colors can be selected by the user.

  2. Width is no more than 80 characters or glyphs (40 if CJK).

  3. Text is not justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins).

  4. Line spacing (leading) is at least space-and-a-half within paragraphs, and paragraph spacing is at least 1.5 times larger than the line spacing.

  5. Text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent in a way that does not require the user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text on a full-screen window.

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Sufficent Techniques

Sufficient Techniques for 1.4.8 - Visual Presentation

Note: Other techniques may also be sufficient if they meet the success criterion.

Instructions: Since this is a multi-part success criterion, you must satisfy one of the numbered items for each of the requirements below.

First Requirement: Techniques to ensure foreground and background colors can be selected by the user
  1. C23: Specifying text and background colors of secondary content such as banners, features and navigation in CSS while not specifying text and background colors of the main content (CSS) OR

  2. C25: Specifying borders and layout in CSS to delineate areas of a Web page while not specifying text and text-background colors (CSS) OR

  3. G156: Using a technology that has commonly-available user agents that can change the foreground and background of blocks of text OR

  4. G148: Not specifying background color, not specifying text color, and not using technology features that change those defaults OR

  5. G175: Providing a multi color selection tool on the page for foreground and background colors

Second Requirement: Techniques to ensure width is no more than 80 characters or glyphs (40 if CJK)
  1. G204: Not interfering with the user agent's reflow of text as the viewing window is narrowed OR

  2. C20: Using relative measurements to set column widths so that lines can average 80 characters or less when the browser is resized (CSS)

Third Requirement: Techniques to ensure text is not justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins)
  1. C19: Specifying alignment either to the left OR right in CSS (CSS) OR

  2. G172: Providing a mechanism to remove full justification of text OR

  3. G169: Aligning text on only one side

Fourth Requirement: Techniques to ensure line spacing (leading) is at least space-and-a-half within paragraphs, and paragraph spacing is at least 1.5 times larger than the line spacing
  1. G188: Providing a button on the page to increase line spaces and paragraph spaces OR

  2. C21: Specifying line spacing in CSS (CSS)

Fifth Requirement: Techniques to ensure text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent in a way that does not require the user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text on a full-screen window
  1. Not interfering with the user agent's reflow of text as the viewing window is narrowed (General, Future Link) OR

  2. G146: Using liquid layout AND using measurements that are relative to other measurements in the content by using one or more of the following techniques:

  3. G206: Providing options within the content to switch to a layout that does not require the user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text

Advisory Techniques

Advisory Techniques for 1.4.8 - Visual Presentation
  • Using a hover effect to highlight a paragraph, list items, or table cells (CSS) (future link)

  • Presenting text in sans serif font or providing a mechanism to achieve this (CSS) (future link)

  • Using vertical (bulleted or numbered) lists rather than inline lists (future link)

  • Using upper and lower case according to the spelling conventions of the text language (future link)

  • Providing large fonts by default (future link)

  • Avoiding the use of text in raster images (future link)

  • Avoiding scaling font sizes smaller than the user-agent default (future link)

  • Providing sufficient inter-column spacing (future link)

  • Avoiding centrally aligned text (future link)

  • Avoiding chunks of italic text (future link)

  • Avoiding overuse of different styles on individual pages and in sites (future link)

  • Making links visually distinct (future link)

  • Providing expandable bullets (future link)

  • Show/hide bullet points (future link)

  • Putting an em-space or two spaces after sentences (future link)

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Failures

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Notes

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